Interações entre o Legislativo e o Executivo federal do Brasil na definição de políticas de interesse amplo: uma abordagem sistêmica, com aplicação na saúde
Author Gomes, Fábio de Barros Correia
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-advisor Santos, Fabiano Guilherme Mendes
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-medium 337 f. : il.
Abstract Aborda a relação entre o Legislativo e o Executivo na produção de políticas. Identifica os elementos do sistema de produção legislativa do Brasil (regras estruturantes, atores, recursos, instâncias de decisão e tipos de políticas produzidas) e propõe um modelo para o caso brasileiro de presidencialismo de coalizão, com base em estudos sobre a relação entre o presidente e o Congresso dos EUA e também na vasta produção existente sobre o contexto nacional. O sistema é estruturado pelo marco normativo de maior hierarquia, a Constituição, determinado historicamente, o qual privilegia a governabilidade com "accountability" e também orienta políticas segundo princípios de equidade, mas com responsabilidade orçamentária. O modelo considera que as agendas estratégicas dos atores são produto de variadas influências, incluindo o ¿status quo¿ (políticas existentes) e as demandas provenientes das conexões normativa e eleitoral. A partir desse modelo, o estudo analisa seus elementos e relações, aplicando-o a um conjunto abrangente de propostas legislativas (cerca de 21 mil proposições sobre todos os temas, apresentadas no Congresso entre 1999 e 2006, nas três vias).This study addresses the relationship between the Legislative and the Executive on the production of policies. It identifies elements of the Brazilian policymaking system (structuring rules, actors, resources, places of decision and policies) and proposes a model for the Brazilian context of coalition presidentialism, based on studies about the relations between the United States Congress and the president, and also on the extensive literature about the Brazilian case. The system is structured by the normative framework of higher hierarchy, the Constitution, historically determined; which privileges governability with accountability and also directs policies according to principles of equity and budgetary responsibility. The model considers that the actors¿ strategic agendas receive many influences, including the "status quo" and the demands from normative and electoral connections. The first creates "path dependencies" and limit options for policies, stressing issues related to the capacity to govern. The second aggregate preferences according to the belonging to the coalition government or to the opposition. The legislative proposals derived from actor's agendas are processed on predetermined places of decision at Congress, according to subject and relevance of the bills, where actors interact by selecting legislative pathways and other strategic resources. The systemic framework is integrated to strategic interactions that occur while the proposals follow the legislative phases of initiation, consideration and conclusion (on three distinct pathways: constitutional, complementary to the Constitution and ordinary. This structure is reinforced by rules that centralize the decision process at the Congress. The system products are the laws with impact on public policies. Based on this model, the study analyses its elements and their relations through its application on a large set of proposals (around 21 thousand on all themes, presented at Brazilian Congress between 1999 and 2006, on the three pathways). Signs of four types of interactions are observed, according to variation on patterns of conflict and actor's leadership: coalition leadership, Legislative leadership, cooperation and deadlock. The data oppose the demarcation of Powers¿ agenda and indicate that the Executive success was inversely proportional to the hierarchy of the pathway and that the Legislative¿s performance was greater than that of the Executive at the constitutional pathway, with prominence for the Senate activity, and at the ordinary one (only on the case of the ordinary bill of law, since the Executive's privilege to initiate budgetary laws and to issue provisional measures, with immediate force of law, warranted a higher overall quantitative performance for this Power at this pathway). However, the coalition largely prevailed on all pathways. Qualitative analysis with focus on health policies and their financing reinforce these results and suggest that, besides the many regularities observed on the system (rejecting thesis like the decision paralysis or the complete predominance of the Executive), fragmentations on the society and the Brazilian State persist as limiting factors to the production of more equitable policies.
Subject Política de saúde, Brasil
Poder legislativo, Brasil
Poder executivo, Brasil
Processo legislativo, Brasil
Sistema de saúde, financiamento, Brasil
Sistema Único de Saúde (Brasil) (SUS)
Description Tese (doutorado) -- Instituto de Estudos Sociais e Políticos, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 2011.
Date 2011
URI http://bd.camara.gov.br/bd/handle/bdcamara/6165

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